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Advances in Discrete Differential Geometry

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ISBN: ISBN: 9783662504468 (Print) 9783662504475 (Online) Year: Pages: 439 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-50447-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics
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This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, and on pure mathematics and its practical applications. The interaction of these facets is demonstrated by concrete examples, including discrete conformal mappings, discrete complex analysis, discrete curvatures and special surfaces, discrete integrable systems, conformal texture mappings in computer graphics, and free-form architecture. This richly illustrated book will convince readers that this new branch of mathematics is both beautiful and useful. It will appeal to graduate students and researchers in differential geometry, complex analysis, mathematical physics, numerical methods, discrete geometry, as well as computer graphics and geometry processing.

Advances in Production Technology

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Production Engineering ISSN: 21940525 ISBN: 9783319123035 9783319123042 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-12304-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management
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This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Advances in Proof-Theoretic Semantics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Trends in Logic ISSN: 15726126 ISBN: 9783319226859 9783319226866 Year: Volume: 43 Pages: 283 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22686-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics --- Philosophy
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This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained description and analysis of a significant research question in this area. The contributions are representative of the field and should be of interest to logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians alike.

Keywords

logic --- mathematics

Advances in Wheat Genetics: From Genome to Field: Proceedings of the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium

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ISBN: 9784431556749 9784431556756 Year: Pages: 445 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55675-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics
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This proceedings is a collection of 46 selected papers that were presented at the 12th International Wheat Genetics Symposium (IWGS). Since the launch of the wheat genome sequencing project in 2005, the arrival of draft genome sequences has marked a new era in wheat genetics and genomics, catalyzing rapid advancement in the field. This book provides a comprehensive review of the forefront of wheat research, across various important topics such as germplasm and genetic diversity, cytogenetics and allopolyploid evolution, genome sequencing, structural and functional genomics, gene function and molecular biology, biotic stress, abiotic stress, grain quality, and classical and molecular breeding. Following an introduction, 9 parts of the book are dedicated to each of these topics. A final, 11th part entitled “Toward Sustainable Wheat Production” contains 7 excellent papers that were presented in the 12th IWGS Special Session supported by the OECD. With rapid population growth and radical climate changes, the world faces a global food crisis and is in need of another Green Revolution to boost yields of wheat and other widely grown staple crops. Although this book focuses on wheat, many of the newly developed techniques and results presented here can be applied to other plant species with large and complex genomes. As such, this volume is highly recommended for all students and researchers in wheat sciences and related plant sciences and for those who are interested in stable food production and food security.

Agricultural and Forestry Reconstruction After the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9784431555575 9784431555582 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55558-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: History
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This book summarizes the results of 3 years of agricultural and forestry reconstructive efforts and applied research conducted directly in the affected areas of Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake. It describes fast and effective revival methods and technologies from tsunami and radiation damages, demonstrated through the collaborative efforts of researchers, students, local farmers, forest owners, and municipalities gathered under the Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance Project. Consisting of four parts, the first part of the book provides an overview of the damage and measures taken to overcome them by the local municipalities and the Tokyo University of Agriculture. The second part presents data and results of agricultural recovery from the tsunami—for example, monitoring systems, reconstruction models, and convenient, low-cost methods developed for the restoration of tsunami-damaged paddy fields. The third part focuses on recovery from radiation-contaminated farmlands and forests and consequent reputational damages. Included are various primary data obtained from field experiments and surveys, studies on the mechanism of contamination, and the results of radical monitoring, decontamination, and restoration techniques performed at this site. The final part is a collection of reflections of local farmers, forest owners, and students who participated in the project. The academic trials and errors recorded in this book are an invaluable contribution to disaster management and recovery processes. It is written for a wide audience, not limited to researchers and students, but also for government and state officials, municipalities, agricultural cooperative staff members, and farmers.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431543275 9784431543282 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54328-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Agriculture (General)
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Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: The First Three Years

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ISBN: 9784431558262 9784431558286 Year: Pages: 263 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-55828-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Technology
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This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.

AiREAS: Sustainocracy for a Healthy City: Phase 3: Civilian Participation – Including the Global Health Deal Proposition

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs on Case Studies of Sustainable Development ISSN: 2196-7830 ISBN: 9783319456195 (Print) 9783319456201 (Online) Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45620-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Sociology
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This volume describes phase 3 of the AiREAS multidisciplinary cocreation effort to produce a Healthy City. Phase 1 referred to making visible the invisible from an air quality and human exposure perspective. Phase 2 studies air quality related to health and Phase 3 looks at air quality, health and lifestyle from the perspective of persuasion to innovative change. The three books together describe the coming about and first results of the AiREAS "healthy city" cooperative in the city of Eindhoven and Province of North Brabant in the Netherlands. AiREAS is an initiative focused on the multidisciplinary co-creation of healthy cities using the core human value of human health and air quality as guiding principle for profound regional innovation.

Altern im Wandel: Zwei Jahrzehnte Deutscher Alterssurvey (DEAS)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783658125011 (Print) 9783658125028 (Online) Year: Pages: 389 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-12502-8 Language: Deutsch
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
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Das vorliegende Buch zum Deutschen Alterssurvey (DEAS) stellt mit einem breiten Themenspektrum dar, dass die Lebensphase Alter vielfältig ist und sich wandelt: Ältere Menschen sind heute aktiver als vor 20 Jahren. Sie sind länger erwerbstätig, engagieren sich häufiger ehrenamtlich, sie treiben mehr Sport und sind mehrheitlich sozial gut eingebunden. Nehmen aber auch die Ungleichheiten im Alter zu? Befunde zu dieser Frage liefert der DEAS, die bundesweit wichtigste repräsentative Langzeitbefragung von Menschen, die sich in der zweiten Lebenshälfte befinden, also 40 Jahre und älter sind. Der DEAS wird seit 1996 vom Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ) finanziert. Das Buch zum DEAS 2014 stellt einen wesentlichen Teil der Sozialberichterstattung zum Thema Alter dar, ist Grundlage der Seniorenpolitik auf Bundesebene und Impulsgeber der sozial- und verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Alternsforschung.

Keywords

demography

Anti-fragile ICT Systems

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319300689 9783319300702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 151 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30070-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Computer Science
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This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments. The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.

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